- A systemic reaction caused by reaction to endotoxins released by the death of harmful organisms within the body
- Occurs following antibiotic treatment for a number of spirochetal and bacterial infections (classically described in the treatment of syphilis)
- Can also occur following treatment of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) or Lyme disease
- Both penicillin and tetracycline can induce JHR
- Resembles bacterial sepsis.
- Tends to occur within two hours of antibiotic administration
- Lasts for a few hours or up to a day
- Mortality rate from JHR in louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in the absence of adequate monitoring and resuscitation measures is ~5%.
Occurs 2 to 6 hours after treatment started; symptoms can last for 24 hours
- Flushing (due to vasodilation)
- Tachycardia and hyperventilation are accompanied by hypertension, and then by a drop in blood pressure due to vasodilation and declining peripheral pulse.
- Typically a clinical diagnosis